Bibliographical Abbreviations

AAA                                     Annals of Archaeology and Anthropology 1–28 (Liverpool 1908–1948).

ÄAT                                     Ägypten und Altes Testament. Studien zu Geschichte, Kultur und Religion Ägyptens und des Alten Testaments.

aATU                                    K. Hecker, Altassyrische Texte in Umschrift. www.hethport.uni-wuerzburg.de/HPM/index.php

AbB                                      Altbabylonische Briefe in Umschrift und Übersetzung.

ABL                                     R. F. Harper, Assyrian and Babylonian letters belonging to the Kouyounjik collection of the British Museum.

Adš                                      G. Wilhelm / D. L. Stein, Das Archiv des Šilwa-Teššup, 1–9.

AfO (Beih.)                          Archiv für Orientforschung (Beihefte).

AHw.                                    W. von Soden, Akkadisches Handwörterbuch.

AION                                    Annali dell’Istituto (Universitario) Orientale di Napoli.

AJBI                                     Annual of the Japanese Biblical Institute.

AJS                                       Actes Juridiques Susuiens (= MDP 22–24).

Akkadica                              Akkadica. Revue semestrielle de la Fondation Assyriologique Georges Dossin.

AKT                                     Ankara Kültepe Tabletleri (Ankaraner Kültepe-Tafeln).

ALL                                      N. Wasserman, Akkadian Love Literature of the Third and Second Millennium BCE (= Leipziger Altorientalische Studien 4).

AlT                                       D. J. Wiseman, The Alalakh Tablets.

AMD                                    (Studies in) Ancient Magic and Divination.

AMT                                     R. C. Thompson, Assyrian medical texts from the originals in the British Museum (London 1923).

Amurru                                 Amurru (Paris 1996ff.).

ANES                                   Ancient Near Eastern Studies. An annual (publ.) by the School of Fine Arts, Classical Studies and Archaeology University of Melbourne.

AnSt.                                    Anatolian Studies. Journal of the British Institute of Archaeo-logy at Ankara.

AO                                        Tablets in the collections of the Musée du Louvre.

AOAT                                  Alter Orient und Altes Testament.

AoF                                      Altorientalische Forschungen.

AOS                                      American Oriental Series.

API                                       E. Herzfeld, Altpersische Inschriften.

ArAn                                    Archivum Anatolicum.

ARM                                    Archives Royales de Mari.

ArOr.                                    Archív Orientální.

ARRIM                                Annual Review of the Royal Inscriptions of Mesopotamia Project.

AS                                        Assyriological Studies (Chicago).

ASJ                                       Acta Sumerologica.

Ass.                                      Field number of tablets excavated at Assur.

Astronomical Diaries           A. J. Sachs / H. Hunger, Astronomical Diaries and Related Texts from Babylonia.

ATHE                                   B. Kienast, Die altassyrischen Texte des Orientalischen Seminars der Universität Heidelberg und der Sammlung Erlenmeyer-Basel.

Atra-ḫasīs                             W. G. Lambert / A. R. Millard, Atra-ḫasīs. The Babylonian story of the flood.

AUCT                                   Andrews University Cuneiform Texts.

AulaOr.                                Aula Orientalis. Revista de estudios del Próximo Oriente Antiguo.

AUWE                                  Ausgrabungen in Uruk-Warka. Endberichte, DAI Baghdad (Mainz 1987–).

AWTL                                  F. Ismail, Altbabylonische Wirtschaftsurkunden aus Tall Leilān Syrien (PhD thesis Tübingen 1991).

BabA                                    Babylonische Archive (Dresden 2002ff.).

BagF                                     Baghdader Forschungen.

BagM                                   Baghdader Mitteilungen.

Ballad of Early Rulers         Line numbering after Y. Cohen, Wisdom from the Late Bronze Age (Atlanta 2013) 132–139.

BAM                                    F. Köcher et al., Die babylonisch-assyrische Medizin in Texten und Untersuchungen.

BATSH                                Berichte der Ausgrabung Tall Šēḫ Ḥamad / Dūr-Katlimmu.

BBR                                      H. Zimmern, Beiträge zur Kenntnis der babylonischen Religion.

BE                                        The Babylonian Expedition of the University of Pennsylvania.

Bēl rēmanni                          M. Jursa, Das Archiv des Bēl-rēmanni (= PIHANS 86).

BiMes.                                  Bibliotheca Mesopotamica.

BIN                                       Babylonian Inscriptions in the Collection of James B. Nies, Yale University

BiOr.                                    Bibliotheca Orientalis.

BIWA                                   R. Borger, Beiträge zum Inschriftenwerk Assurbanipals.

BM                                       Tablets in the collections of the British Museum.

BMS                                     L. W. King, Babylonian magic and sorcery.

Bo.                                        Field number of tablets excavated at Boghazköy.

BRM                                     J. P. Morgan, Babylonian records in the library of J. Pierpont Morgan.

BSA                                      Bulletin on Sumerian Agriculture.

BWL                                     W. G. Lambert, Babylonian wisdom literature.      

CAD                                     The Assyrian Dictionary of the University of Chicago.

Cagni Erra                            L. Cagni, L’epopea di Erra (= Studi Semitici 34).

CBS                                      Tablets in the collections of the University Museum of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia).

CCT                                      Cuneiform Texts from Cappadocian Tablets in the British Museum.

CDA                                     J. A. Black / A. George / N. Postgate, A concise dictionary of Akkadian.

CH                                        Codex Hammurapi.

CHANE                                Culture and History of the Ancient Near East.

Chuera                                  S. Jakob, Die mittelassyrischen Texte aus Tell Chuēra in Nordost-Syrien.

CNIP                                     Carsten Niebuhr Institute Publications.

CRRAI                                  Compte rendu, Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale.

CT                                        Cuneiform Texts from Babylonian Tablets in the British Museum.

CTMMA                              Cuneiform Texts in the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

CTN                                      Cuneiform Texts from Nimrud.

CunMon.                              Cuneiform Monographs.

CUSAS                                 Cornell University Studies in Assyriology and Sumerology.

DamM                                  Damaszener Mitteilungen.

DCCLT                                 N. Veldhuis (ed.), Digital Corpus of Cuneiform Lexical Texts. oracc.museum.upenn.edu/dcclt/.

DCS                                      D. Charpin/J.-M. Durand, Documents cunéiformes de Strasbourg conservés à la Bibliothèque nationale et universitaire (= RGC Cah. 4).

EA                                        J. A. Knudtzon, Die El-Amarna-Tafeln. Cf. W. L. Moran, The Amarna letters.

Edubba 7                              F. N. H. Al-Rawi / S. Dalley, Old Babylonian Texts from Private Houses at Abu Habbah, Ancient Sippir.

Ee                                         Enūma elîš (W. G. Lambert, Babylonian Creation Myths [2013]; T. R. Kämmerer / K. A. Metzler, Das babylonische Weltschöpfungsepos Enūma elîš [= AOAT 375, 2012]).

Emar                                     D. Arnaud, Recherches au Pays d’Aštata. Emar 6/1–4. Textes sumériens et accadiens.

FAOS (Beih.)                       Freiburger Altorientalische Studien (Beihefte).

FLP                                       Tablets in the collections of the Free Library of Philadelphia.

FM                                        Florilegium Marianum (= Mémoires de NABU).

Fs. Alp                                  H. Otten / E. Akurgal / H. Ertem / A. Süel (eds.), Hittite and other Anatolian and Near Eastern Studies in honour of Sedat Alp (= Anadolu Medeniyetleri Araştırma ve Tanıtma Vakfı Yayınları 1, Ankara 1992).

Fs. De Meyer                       H. Gasche / M. Tanret / C. Janssen / A. Degraeve (eds.), Cinquante-deux réflexions sur le Proche-Orient ancien: offertes en hommage à Léon De Meyer (= MHEO 2, 1994).

Fs. Donbaz                           Ş. Dönmez (ed.), DUB.SAR É.DUB.BA.A Studies Presented in Honour of Veysel Donbaz (Istanbul 2010).

Fs. Garelli                            D. Charpin / F. Joannès (eds.), Marchands, diplomates et empereurs. Études sur la civilisation mésopotamienne offertes à Paul Garelli (Paris 1991).

Fs. Geller                             S. V. Panayotov / L. Vacín (eds.), Mesopotamian Medicine and Magic. Studies in Honor of Markham J. Geller (Leiden/Boston 2018).

Fs. Günbattı                         İ. Albayrak / H. Erol / M. Çayır (eds.), Studies in Honour of Cahit Günbattı (Ankara 2015).

Fs. Hoffner                           G. M. Beckman / R. H. Beal / G. McMahon (eds.), Hittite studies in honor of Harry A. Hoffner Jr. on the occasion of his 65th birthday (Winona Lake 2003).

Fs. Kraus                              G. van Driel / Th. J. H. Krispijn / M. Stol / K. R. Veenhof (eds.), Zikir šumim: Assyriological studies presented to F. R. Kraus on the occasion of his seventieth birthday (= Studia Francisci Scholten memoriae dicata 5, Leiden 1982).

Fs. Lambert                          A. R. George / I. L. Finkel (eds.), Wisdom, gods and literature: Studies in Assyriology in Honour of W. G. Lambert (Winona Lake 2000).

Fs. Larsen                             J. G. Dercksen (ed.), Assyria and beyond: studies presented to Mogens Trolle Larsen (= PIHANS 100).

Fs. Matouš                           B. Hruška / G. Komoróczy (eds.), Festschrift Lubor Matouš, 1–2 (Assyriologia 5/1–2 = Az Eötvös Loránd tudományegyetem Ókori történeti tanszékeinek kiadványai 24–25, Budapest 1978).

Fs. Owen                              G. Wilhelm (ed.), General Studies and Excavations at Nuzi 11/2: in honor of David I. Owen on the occasion of his 65th birthday, October 28, 2005 (= SCCNH 18, 2009).

Fs. N. Özgüç                        M. J. Mellink / E. Porada / T. Özgüç (eds.), Aspects of Art and Iconography. Anatolia and its Neighbors. Nimet Özgüç’e armağan. Studies in Honor of Nimet Özgüç (Ankara 1993).

Fs. Reiner                             F. Rochberg-Halton (ed.), Language, Literature and History. Philological and Historical Studies Presented to Erica Reiner (= AOS 67, 1987).

Fs. Röllig                             B. Pongratz-Leisten / H. Kühne / P. Xella (eds.), Ana šadî Labnāni lū allik: Beiträge zu altorientalischen und mittelmeerischen Kulturen: Festschrift für Wolfgang Röllig (= AOAT 247).

Fs. Sjöberg                           H. Behrens / D. Loding / M. T. Roth (eds.), DUMU-E2-DUB-BA-A. Studies in honor of Åke W. Sjöberg (= OccPubl. S. N. Kramer Fund 11, 1989).

Fs. Steve                               L. De Meyer / H. Gasche / F. Vallat (eds.), Fragmenta historiae elamicae: mélanges offerts à M.-J. Steve.

Fs. Stol                                 R. J. van der Spek (ed.), with G. Haayer, F. A. M. Wiggermann, M. Prins, J. Bilbija, Studies in Ancient Near Eastern World View and Society, Presented to Marten Stol on the Occasion of His 65th Birtday, 10 November 2005, and His Retirement from the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Fs. Veenhof                          J. G. Dercksen et al. (eds.), Veenhof Anniversary Volume. Studies presented to Klaas R. Veenhof on the occasion of his sixty-fifth birthday (= PIHANS 52, 2001).

Fs. Walker                            C. Wunsch (ed.), Mining the archives. Festschrift for Christopher Walker on the occasion of his 60th birthday 4 October 2002, (= BabA 1, 2002).

Fs. Wilcke                            W. Sallaberger / K. Volk / A. Zgoll (eds.), Literatur, Politik und Recht in Mesopotamien. Festschrift für Claus Wilcke (= Orientalia Biblica et Christiana 14, 2003).

GAG                                     W. von Soden, Grundriß der akkadischen Grammatik.

GAO                                     N. J. C. Kouwenberg, A Grammar of Old Assyrian.

Gilg.                                     A. R. George, The Babylonian Gilgamesh-Epic (Oxford 2003), and recent publications.

Gs. Sachs                              E. Leichty / M. deJong Ellis / P. Gerardi (eds.), A scientific humanist. Studies in memory of Abraham Sachs (= OccPubl.S. N. Kramer Fund 9, 1988).

Gs. Vargyas                          Z. Csabai (ed.), Studies in Economic and Social History of the Ancient Near East in Memory of Péter Vargyas (= Ancient Near Eastern and Mediterranean Studies 2, 2014).

HAL                                     L. Koehler / W. Baumgartner / J. J. Stamm, Hebräisches und Aramäisches Lexikon zum Alten Testament.

HANEM 2                            G. Beckman, Texts from the Vicinity of Emar in the Collection of Jonathan Rosen (History of the Ancient Near East 2).

HEG                                     J. Tischler/G. Neumann, Hethitisches etymologisches Glossar.

Hermitage                            Tablets in the collections of the Hermitage St. Petersburg.

Ḫg                                         Lexical series ḪAR-gud, published MSL 5–11.

Ḫḫ                                         Lexical series ḪAR-ra = ḫubullu, published MSL 5–11.

HSAO                                   Heidelberger Studien zum Alten Orient.

HSS                                      Harvard Semitic Series.

HUCA                                  Hebrew Union College Annual.

ICK                                       Inscriptions cunéiformes du Kultépé.

IM                                         Tablets in the collections of the Iraq-Museum.

Imdilum                                M. Ichisar, Les archives cappadociennes du marchand Imdilum.

Iraq                                       Iraq. Journal of the British Archaeological Institute.

Ištar Bagdad                         M. P. Streck, Die Klage „Ištar Bagdad“, in: Fs. Wilcke, 304–309.

Ištar Louvre                          M. P. Streck / N. Wasserman, The Man is Like a Woman, the Maiden is a Young Man. A new edition of Ištar-Louvre.

ITT                                       Inventaire des tablettes de Tello.

IV R                                      H. C. Rawlinson et al., The Cuneiform Inscriptions of Western Asia.

Izi                                         Lexical series izi = išātu, published MSL 13, 154ff.

JAOS                                    Journal of the American Oriental Society.

JCS                                       Journal of Cuneiform Studies.    

JEOL                                    Jaarbericht van het Vooraziatisch-Egyptisch Genootschap “Ex Oriente Lux”.

JRAS                                    Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society.

JSS                                       Journal of Semitic Studies.

KADP                                   F. Köcher, Keilschrifttexte zur assyrisch-babylonischen Drogen- und Pflanzenkunde: Texte der Serien uru.an.na : maltakal, ḪAR.ra : ḫubullu und Ú-GAR-šú (= DAWIfO 28).

KAJ                                      E. Ebeling, Keilschrifttexte aus Assur juristischen Inhalts (= WVDOG 50).

KAL                                     Keilschrifttexte aus Assur literarischen Inhalts.

KAR                                     E. Ebeling, Keilschrifttexte aus Assur religiösen Inhalts.

KIM                                      Kültepe International Meetings (Turnhout 2015–).

KKS                                      L. Matouš / M. Matoušov-Rajmová, Kappadokische Keil-schrifttafeln mit Siegeln aus den Sammlungen der Karls-universität in Prag.

KTT                                      M. Krebernik, Keilschrifttexte aus Tuttul.

KUB                                     Keilschrifturkunden aus Boghazköi 1–60 (Berlin 1921–1990).

Lamaštu                                W. Farber, Lamaštu. An Edition of the Canonical Series of Lamaštu Incantations and Rituals and Related Texts from the Second and First Millennia B.C.

LANE                                   Languages of the Ancient Near East (Winona Lake 2008ff.).

Langdon Tammuz                S. H. Langdon, Tammuz and Ishtar.

LAPO                                   Littératures Anciennes du Proche-Orient (Paris 1967ff.).

LBAT                                   Th. G. Pinches et alii, Late Babylonian astronomical and related texts.

LE                                         Laws of Eshnunna. Editions: A. Goetze, The Laws of Eshnunna. R. Yaron, The Laws of Eshnunna.

Lie Sg.                                  A. G. Lie, The inscriptions of Sargon II, king of Assyria.

LKA                                     E. Ebeling, Literarische Keilschrifttexte aus Assur.

M.                                         Field number of tablets excavated at Mari.

MAD                                    I. J. Gelb, Materials for the Assyrian Dictionary.

Malku                                   Lexical series malku = šarru, published AOAT 50.

MARI                                   MARI. Annales de recherches interdisciplinaires.

MARV                                 H. Freydank et al., Mittelassyrische Rechtsurkunden und Verwaltungstexte.

MBLET                                O. R. Gurney, The Middle Babylonian legal and economic texts from Ur.

MCS                                     Manchester Cuneiform Studies.

MDP                                     Mémoires de la Délégation en Perse.

MEE                                     Materiali Epigrafici di Ebla (Neapel 1979–).

MesCiv.                                Mesopotamian Civilizations (Winona Lake 1989ff.).

MesZL                                  R. Borger, Mesopotamisches Zeichenlexikon (= AOAT 305).

MHEM / MHET / MHEO    Mesopotamian History and Environment. Memoirs /Texts / Occasional Publications.

MRS                                     Mission de Ras Shamra (Paris 1936–1978).

MSL                                     Materialien zum sumerischen Lexikon / Materials for the Sumerian lexicon.

NABU                                  Nouvelles Assyriologiques Brèves et Utilitaires (Paris / Rouen 1987ff.).

NATN                                   D. I. Owen, Neo-Sumerian archival texts primarily from Nippur in the University Museum, the Oriental Institute and the Iraq Museum.

NBC                                     Tablets in the collections of the Nies Babylonian Collection (Yale University, New Haven).

NCBT                                   Tablets in the collections of the Newell Collection of Babylonian Tablets (Yale University, New Haven).

ND                                        Field number of tablets excavated at Nimrud (Kalḫu).

OAA                                     Old Assyrian Archives (Leiden 2002ff.; in PIHANS).

OBO                                     Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis.

OBTR                                   S. Dalley / C. B. F. Walker / J. D. Hawkins, Old Babylonian Tablets from Tell al Rimah.

OccPubl. Bab. Fund             Occasional Publications of the Babylonian Fund.

OECT                                   Oxford Editions of Cuneiform Texts.

OIP                                       Oriental Institute Publications (Chicago 1924ff.).

OLA                                     Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta.

Or.                                        Orientalia.

ORA                                     Orientalische Religionen in der Antike (Tübingen 2009ff.).

Parfümrezepte                      E. Ebeling, Parfümrezepte und kultische Texte aus Assur.

PBS                                      The Museum Publications of the Babylonian Section, University of Pennsylvania.

Persika                                 Persika (Paris 2001ff.).

PIHANS                               Publications de l’Institut Historique-Archéologique Néerlandais de Stamboul.

PNA                                     K. Radner et al. (eds.), The Prosopography of the Neo-Assyrian Empire.

POAT                                   W. C. Gwaltney, The Pennsylvania Old Assyrian texts (= HUCA Suppl. 3).

Prag                                      K. Hecker / G. Kryszat / L. Matouš, Kappadokische Keil-schrifttafeln aus den Sammlungen der Karlsuniversität Prag.

PRAK                                   H. de Genouillac, Premières recherches archéologiques à Kich: mission d’Henri de Genouillac 1911–1912.

PRU                                      C. F.-A. Schaeffer (ed.), Le Palais Royal d’Ugarit.

PSBA                                    Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archaeology.

PSD                                      Å.W. Sjöberg et al. (eds.), The Sumerian dictionary of the University Museum of the University of Pennsylvania.

QS 3                                     T. Richter / S. Lange, Das Archiv des Idadda (Qaṭna Studien 3).

QuadSem.                             Quaderni di Semitistica.

RA                                        Revue d’Assyriologie et d’Archéologie Orientale.

RATL                                   J. Eidem, The Royal Archives from Tell Leilan (= PIHANS 117).

REL                                      Revised Eponym List (Barjamovic, Hertel and Larsen 2012).

RGTC                                   W. Röllig et al. (eds.), Répertoire géographique des textes cunéiformes.

RIMA/E                               The Royal Inscriptions of Mesopotamia. Assyrian Periods / Early Periods.

RINAP                                  The Royal Inscriptions of the Neo-Assyrian Period.

RlA                                       Reallexikon der Assyriologie und Vorderasiatischen Archäologie.

Rm.                                       Rassam. Tablets in the collections of the British Museum.

RSO                                      Ras Shamra − Ougarit

SAA                                     State Archives of Assyria.

SAAB                                   State Archives of Assyria. Bulletin.

SAALT                                 State Archives of Assyria. Literary Texts.

SAAS                                   State Archives of Assyria Suppl.

SAD                                      M. P. Streck (ed.), Supplement to the Akkadian Dictionaries.

Sadberk                                V. Donbaz, Cuneiform Texts in the Sadberk Hanım Museum (Istanbul 1999).

SANER                                 Studies in Ancient Near Eastern Records.

SCCNH                                Studies on the Civilization and Culture of Nuzi and the Hurrians.

SD                                        Studia et Documenta ad Iura Orientis Antiqui Pertinentia.

SEAL                                    M. P. Streck / N. Wasserman, Sources of Early Akkadian Literature. www.seal.uni-leipzig.de.

Sefarad                                 Sefarad. Revista de la Escuelade Estudios Hebráicos.

Shemshara 1                         J. Eidem / J. Læssøe, The Shemshara Archives. Vol. 1: The Letters (Copenhagen 2001).

ShT                                       J. Læssøe, The Shemshāra tablets: a preliminary report (Copenhagen 1959).

SpTU                                    Spätbabylonische Texte aus Uruk.

ŠRT                                      C. D. Gray, The Šamaš Religious Texts.

StAT                                     Studien zu den Assur-Texten.

StBoT                                   Studien zu den Boğazköy-Texten.

StPohl SM                            Studia Pohl. Dissertationes scientificae de rebus Orientis antiqui, Series Maior.

Streck Asb.                           M. Streck, Assurbanipal (= Vorderasiatische Bibliothek 7).

STT                                      O. R. Gurney / J. J. Finkelstein / P. Hulin, The Sultantepe tablets.

Subartu                                 Subartu, edited by the European Centre for Upper Mesopotamian Studies (Turnhout 1995ff.).

Sumer                                   Sumer. A Journal of Archaeology and History in Arab World.

Šūpê-amēli                           Line numbering after Y. Cohen, Wisdom from the Late Bronze Age (Atlanta 2013) 84–101.

TBER                                   J.-M. Durand, Textes babyloniens d’époque récente.

TCL                                      Textes Cunéiformes. Musée du Louvre.

TCS                                      A. L. Oppenheim et al. (eds.), Texts from cuneiform sources.

TDP                                      R. Labat, Traité akkadien de diagnostics et pronostics médicaux.

TIM                                      Texts in the Iraq Museum.

TLT                                      C. A. Vincente, The 1987 Tell Leilan tablets dated by the Limmu Habil-kinu, 1–2.

TMH                                     Texte und Materialien der Frau Professor Hilprecht Collection of Babylonian Antiquities im Eigentum der Universität Jena.

TPAK                                   C. Michel / P. Garelli, Tablettes paléo-assyriennes de Kültepe.

UCP                                      University of California Publications (Berkeley 1907–).

UET                                      Ur Excavations. Texts.

UF                                        Ugarit-Forschungen. Internationales Jahrbuch für die Altertumskunde Syrien-Palästinas.

UFBG                                   W. R. Mayer, Untersuchungen zur Formensprache der babylonischen „Gebetsbeschwörungen“.

VAT                                     Tablets in the collections of the Vorderasiatische Abteilung (Staatliche Museen zu Berlin).

VOM                                    A. Finet (ed.), La Voix de l’opposition en Mésopotamie.

VS                                        Vorderasiatische Schriftdenkmäler.

WAG                                    Tablets in the collections of the Walters Art Gallery.

Weidner Tn.                         E. F. Weidner, Die Inschriften Tukulti-Ninurtas.

WHM                                   Tablets in the collections of The Welcome Institute of the History of Medicine, London.

Wiseman Treaties                Wiseman, D. J., The Vassal-Treaties of Esarhaddon, Iraq 20 (1958) 1–99.

WVDOG                              Wissenschaftliche Veröffentlichungen der Deutschen Orientgesellschaft.

WZKM                                 Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde des Morgenlandes.

YBC                                     Tablets in the Babylonian Collection, Yale University.

YOS                                     Yale Oriental Series.

ZA                                        Zeitschrift für Assyriologie.

ZABR                                   Zeitschrift für Altorientalische und Biblische Rechtsgeschichte.